Wicca is a modern-day western, pagan religion that practices witchcraft and worships nature as the source of all life, energy, and harmony. This study is 2 hours long (recorded in 2018).


Witchcraft has been around in every culture since the beginning of time. Throughout history witchcraft has commonly been associated with those who use metaphysical means to cause harm to the innocent. In the modern western era, however, it is seen as a benign or positive practice for the purpose of divination or healing. Historically, witchcraft was practiced by isolated individuals who led tribal communities as shamans or lived on the outskirts of communities as outcast. Though witches were consulted by communities for knowledge of future events or for healing, they were often feared and seen as untrustworthy. Therefore, there is no historical account of witchcraft until the 1900s.

This view of witches changed in the western world with the occult revival of the 1800s, which began to make the occult and magick socially accepted. In the same way people were thinking differently about the occult, this shift would carry over into witchcraft and begin to shape it into a new, modern-day religion.

Margaret Murray

Margaret Alice Murray (1863–1963) was born in Calcutta, India, to Christian missionaries. In 1894 she attended University College London, became interested in Egyptology, and went on many archeological digs in Egypt. From early 1905 to 1920, she became a respected archeologist who was invited to advise at many museums. She also took an active role in the feminist movement of England. During this time, she became interested in folklore and the witch trials.

In 1917 Murray published an article in the Folklore paper, in which she first articulated her version of the witch-cult theory. The witch-cult theory states that there was a highly developed and organized pre-Christian, pagan religion of witches who were spread across Europe. These witches worshiped the horned god of fertility and performed rituals at night. The witch trials were the Catholic church’s attempt to wipe out this organized religion of witches. This theory was first proposed in the 1800s but was rejected during its day and to this day by all scholars.

Murray went on to promote this idea in her 1921 book The Witch-Cult in Western Europe. Historians at that time claimed that she had distorted the evidence and jumped to illogical and unsupported conclusions. However, her book became very popular and influential. In 1929 Encyclopedia Britannica had her write the article under “witchcraft,” making her views readily accessible to the public. As a result, her ideas had a huge impact on the western world’s view of witchcraft. Her views influenced notable figures in the occult and would become the basis of the formation of Wicca.

Johann Jakob Bachofen (1815–1887) was a Swiss anthropologist. In his 1861 book Mother Right: An Investigation of the Religious and Juridical Character of Matriarchy in the Ancient World, he proposed that ancient cultures were ruled by women and that, originally, all men were sexually promiscuous and therefore never knew who their biological children were. Only the mother knew who her biological children were, giving her the mother-right over the line. This then gave the mothers great respect and honor and made them the heads of the tribes. Over time, men became monogamous, giving them power over the woman, and cultures became patriarchal. There is, in fact, no evidence to support this view, and it is rejected by all scholars today. However, it became the basis of the mother goddess worship in Wicca.

James G. Frazer (1854–1941) was an influential Scottish social anthropologist and folklorist. Frazer traveled very little, and his research was based on ancient histories and the letters of missionaries. In 1890 he published his views in his book The Golden Bough. The most prominent view was that of the dying king. He believed that all the world’s mythologies had a story of a solar deity who had a mystic marriage to a goddess of the Earth. This deity then died at the harvest and was reincarnated in the spring. There is no evidence to support this view, and it is rejected by all scholars today. However, it became the basis of the horned god worship in Wicca.

Gerald Gardner

Gerald Gardner (1884–1964) was born to a wealthy family in Blundellsands, England. In 1884 the family hired Josephine McCombie to take care of Gardner, and she spent more time with him than his parents did. Because Gardner suffered from asthma, his parents allowed McCombie to take him to a warmer climate. From 1888 to 1900, Gardner and McCombie traveled the Mediterranean world. He spent most of his time on his own, reading many books and educating himself. It was during this time that he became interested in Spiritualism and the occult.

In 1901 he moved to Ceylon (modern Sri Lanka) with McCombie in order to learn the tea trade. He spent his free time hunting and hiking in the forest, becoming acquainted with the indigenous natives and taking a great interest in their Buddhist, magic, and shamanistic beliefs. In 1904 his father visited and invested in pioneering the rubber plantation industry. Gardner began to work as a manager of the plantation. In 1910 he was initiated into Freemasonry.

In 1911 the rubber plantation business went under and he moved to Malaya and worked for a rubber plantation there. Once again, he became friends with the indigenous people and participated in their shamanist rituals. He eventually lost his job was employed by the Malaya Office of Customs as a rubber plantation inspector.

In 1927 in a visit to England he met and married Dorothea Frances Rosedale. He also consulted many mediums and conjured spirits to talk to. It was these experiences that created a great appetite for the occult, and he began to do serious research into shamanism and folk magic.

Gardner’s father died in 1936, and he received his inheritance and was able to retire. At the urging of his wife, he moved back to England. England’s climate aggravated his asthma, so his doctor recommended he try nudism. He joined a nudist club and found that it cured his ailment.

In 1939 Gardner joined a Rosicrucian order and the Folk-Lore Society, and he contributed to their published journal on the topics of the occult. According to Gardner, members of the Rosicrucian order took him to a secret coven of witches known as the New Forest coven. There, he witnessed an initiation and heard the word Wicca used, which he recognized as the Old English word for “witch.” He claimed that this was one of the few surviving covens of the ancient, pre-Christian witch-cult religion. However, scholars believe that it was started in the 1930s, influenced by Margaret Murray’s writings.

In 1945 he purchased a plot of land in Fouracres, a nudist colony, and began to live there. He built a house in Bricket Woods and started his own coven made up of friends from the nudist club and the Rosicrucian order. It is during this time that he developed his own form of witchcraft that he called the “Old Religion.”

In 1948 he met Aleister Crowley, joined the Ordo Templi Orientis, and quickly moved up the ranks. When Crowley died, he became the head of the Ordo Templi Orientis in England. Later he traveled to America visiting family members and learning Voodoo.

Doreen Valiente

Doreen Valiente (1922–1999) began to correspond with Gardner in 1952 and expressed her desire to be initiated into his coven. Valiente had been practicing witchcraft since she was thirteen and over the years had become interested in Aleister Crowley’s Thelema and now Gardner’s coven. He met with her, and, when he was satisfied that she had no objections to either ritual nudity or scourging, he initiated her into his coven. She quickly excelled and became the High Priestess of the coven.

Valiente helped Gardner add to his Book of Shadows. A Book of Shadows is a religious text of rituals and magical spells. Gardner claimed that witches before Christianity each kept their own Book of Shadows that they could add to as it was passed from witch to witch. He claimed that his was old and that he had added his own content to it. Valiente said that it was not ancient but mostly rituals taken from works of Aleister Crowley, the book Aradia, the Key of Solomon, and the rituals of Freemasonry. Valiente rewrote much of the Book of Shadows, mostly removing the parts from Aleister Crowley, not because she disagreed with his beliefs and works, but because of his negative reputation that she feared would hurt their coven.

In 1954 Gardner published a book, Witchcraft Today, in which he promoted his teachings on witchcraft, Margaret Murray’s witch-cult theory, and the existence of fairies. He also began to encourage the publicity of the press, inviting them to witness rituals and publish articles. He wanted to get as many people interested in witchcraft as possible. Though many of the articles published about his witchcraft were negative, he kept inviting them to write.

In 1957 Valiente and others, disagreeing with Gardner’s increasing desire to make their coven public and bring new people into the coven, drew up a list of proposed rules for the coven. Gardner responded with his own Wiccan Laws, which he claimed were ancient laws, but Valiente believed that he made them up on the spot. The Wiccan Laws were 30 laws, some of which limited the power of the High Priestess. After that, Valiente and other members of the coven broke away and formed their own coven that failed to last. In 1960 Gardner’s wife died, and three years later he died of a heart attack.

There is no evidence that Gardner called his witchcraft Wicca, although he did refer to the collective community of Pagan Witches as “the Wica.” It is not clear when the religion was first called Wicca. In 1958 Gardner’s rival Charles Cardell referred to Gardner’s witchcraft as the “Craft of the Wiccens.” The first recorded use of the word Wicca was in 1962 and seems to have become the official name of modern-day witches by 1968. Many use the name because it connects them to the ancient practices but eliminates the controversy that is associated with the word witchcraft.

Though there are some who have rejected Gardner’s version of witchcraft, most Wiccans consider Gardner to be the father of modern-day witchcraft as an organized system of beliefs and the basis for their own practice. Because of Gardner’s influence and England’s repeal of the Witchcraft Act of 1735, which made illegal the practice of witchcraft, witchcraft began to spread and grow rapidly in England during the 1960s and on.

After the death of her mother in 1962, Doreen Valiente became willing to be public about being a Wiccan and started publishing books and interacting with the media as Gardner had. She went on television and radio and joined the newly formed Witchcraft Research Association. In 1964 she publicly proclaimed the Wiccan Rede (“council”), which is the foundational statement that provides the key moral standard of Wicca and other modern-day witchcraft religions. It states, “Eight words the Wiccan Rede fulfill, An it harm none do what ye will.” This is basically taken straight from Aleister Crowley’s The Book of the Law. Her books taught magic and how to perform self-initiations for those who were not in a coven.

Alex Sanders

Alex Sanders (1926–1988) was born in Manchester, England, and was introduced to the occult and witchcraft by his mother and grandmother at an early age. According to Sanders, one evening in 1933, when he was seven years old, he walked in on his naked grandmother with her grey hair hanging down to her waist, standing in a circle drawn on the kitchen floor. She told him to enter the circle, take off his clothes, and put his head between his thighs. She then took a sickle-knife and nicked his scrotum, saying, “You are one of us now.” Over the next few years she taught him magic, scrying, and eventually sex magick.

Sanders became a black magician of the left-hand path and used his power to become successful, make lots of money, and be sexually promiscuous. After a while, however, he became fearful of the debt that he owed the universe, and eventually he paid it through the suicide of his lover and his sister was diagnosed with cancer and then died in an accidental shooting. He decided to pursue the right-hand path and teach his magic to others.

In the early 1960s, he was initiated into a Wiccan coven and eventually became the High Priest. He began to study the works of Abramelin, Enochian magic, Goetia, and the works of Éliphas Lévi, which he incorporated into his version of Wicca. His coven began to grow, and he invited the media to his rituals. By 1965 he claimed 1,623 initiates in 100 covens and proclaimed himself “King of the Witches.” In one of his magical rituals, he created a spiritual baby by the name of Michael who grew up, became his familiar spirit, and aided channeling and healing people.

In 1968 he married Maxine Sanders with whom he had a girl and a boy. She became his High Priestess, and both participated in sex magick with people in their coven. Over the years they had a love/hate, on-and-off-again relationship.

During the 1970s, Sanders became very famous in the media, which attracted a lot of initiates who would learn and then form their own Alexandrian covens. Sanders eventually died of lung cancer. Also during this time, the hippie movement was thriving, and many people connected the beliefs of the hippie (New Age) movement to Wicca and joined Wicca, bringing environmentalist and co-existence ideas into Wicca.

Stewart and Janet Farrar

Stewart Farrar (1916–2000) was born in London, England, and was a journalist, screen writer, and novelist who won many awards for his works. It was not until late in his life that he would get interested in Wicca. In 1969 Farrar was sent by the Reveille paper that he worked for to do an article on Alex Sanders. Alex Sanders invited him to an initiation ritual, which fascinated Farrar. In 1970 Farrar was initiated into Sanders’ coven. It was there in 1975 that he met and married his seventh wife, Janet Farrar (1950), who was 34 years younger than him. Stewart Farrar claimed that Alex Sanders should be ranked higher than Éliphas Lévi, Aliester Crowley, and Gerald Gardner in his magical abilities.

Stewart and Janet Farrar began to run their own coven in 1972. The two went on to publish some of the most influential books and movies on Wicca to this day. It is said that seventy-five percent of Wiccans in the United Kingdom can trace their roots back to the Farrars.

In 1993 the Farrars were joined by Gavin Bone and entered into a polyfidelitous relationship with him. After Stewart Farrar’s death, Janet Farrar and Gavin Bone continued to publish books together and give lectures in America, England, and South Africa. They were married in 2014.

By the 1990s, many witches did not like how organized, popular, and all-accepting Wicca was, and they rejected the Gardner witchcraft completely. They have sought out pre-Gardner forms of witchcraft or have developed their own system. Though Wicca is the largest neo-pagan group, this does not mean that every witch is a Wiccan. Likewise, the rise of the occult and Wicca has led to the birth of many other neopagan groups, like neo-druidism, neo-shamanism, and others.

In the 1990s, with the rising popularity of Wicca, Hollywood produced films like The Craft (1996) and television series like Buffy the Vampire Slayer (1997–2003) and Charmed (1998–2006), introducing a large number of young people to Wicca and increasing its growth. A huge growth of Wicca and witchcraft came with the Harry Potter book series (1997–2007) and its movies (2001–2011).

Though it is hard to prove since the government does not do surveys on religion, Wicca is considered to be the fastest-growing religion in America and England. Between 1990 and 2008, Trinity College in Connecticut ran three large, detailed religion surveys. Wicca grew from an estimated 8,000 Wiccans in 1990 to 340,000 practitioners in 2008. They also estimated there were around 340,000 Pagans in addition to Wiccans in 2008. This is a growth rate of 143%. The Pew Research Center found that around 1 to 1.5 million Americans identify as Wiccans or pagans in 2014. Though these numbers are low in comparison to the total number of Americans, almost 25% percent of Americans have no religious affiliation. In the survey, they found that most of these 25% had New Age beliefs.


Because Wiccans do not see themselves as an organized religion with official orthodox beliefs, there are no official holy books.

Book of Shadows is a book originally written by Gerald Gardner. It is a religious text of rituals and magical spells. Gardner said that it was a personal cookbook of spells to which the owner could add or remove material from as they saw fit. It was later rewritten by Doreen Valiente and Alex Sanders. It is one of the foundational books in most Wiccan covens today.

A Witches’ Bible by Stewart Farrar is considered a complete book on spells, rituals, tools, and running a coven.

The Spiral Dance by Starhawk is a best-selling book about Neopagan belief and practice. Its focus is on the mother goddess and mystic experiences.

Beliefs About God

There is a supreme genderless deity (logos from mystery religions) that is unknowable. This is a deist god who created all the other gods of the different mythologies of the world who are involved in creation.

As Wicca has developed over the years, it has become increasingly polytheistic.

Many Wiccans also believe in fairies, nymphs, and other mystical woodland creatures.

Among these gods, the two most powerful and revered gods among Wiccans are the female mother goddess and the male horned god. Many see these two gods as dual aspects of the supreme deity. This belief was taken from Margaret Murray’s claims about the witch-cult. Wiccans often call them the May queen and the green man.

The goddess is the most emphasized and revered god of the two. Gardener first named her as Aradia, the daughter of Diana and Lucifer, who was sent to earth to save humanity by teaching them magick. On earth she became the first witch. There is no evidence that she has existed in any religion, and she was first mentioned in The Gospel of the Witches published in 1899.


Most Wiccans see the mother goddess as Hekate (Greek) and Diana (Roman), goddess of nature, the hunt, and the moon. She is known as the triple head goddess who takes the three forms of the maiden (virginity), mother (fertility), and crone (wisdom), united as one figure. They are sometimes portrayed in Wicca as ruling over the realms of the heavens, earth, and underworld. These three figures also represent the three phases of the moon. The goddess is also referred to as mother Gaia, the spirit that lives in the body of the earth.


The male god is seen as Cernunnos, the god of the woodlands, animals, fertility, the hunt, and the underworld. He is portrayed as having the body of a human with the horns of a stag with torcs (opened ring that represents a high rank of authority) hanging off each horn. Cernunnos most likely evolved from the Greek god Pan of the woodlands, sexuality, fertility, and lust. Pan is portrayed as a human with goat legs and horns.

Most Wiccans are opposed to Yahweh and Christianity. They see these as corrupted and oppressive forces who used their dogma to guilt an enslaved humanity into obedience.

Beliefs About the Material Realm

The material realm and all of its inhabitants were created by the mother goddess since life comes directly from the female. This may have happened through a sexual union between the mother goddess and the horned god or the mother goddess emanating life out of her being. Some may believe there was an evolutionary process involved in the formation of creation.

Wiccans believe that the spiritual and physical world are equal and related to one another—that what happens in one realm affects the other realm.

Beliefs About Humanity

Humanity are the children of the mother goddess and the horned god. Therefore, everyone has the divine within them and can perform magic.

Humans are not sinful or evil but are capable of doing harm through selfish actions.

Because all other creatures in creation––animals and nature spirits––are also children of the mother goddess, they are seen as equal with humanity and must not be harmed for any reason.

Wiccans are often environmentalists who seek to protect the trees and animals. They are vegetarians and do not believe in hunting.

Beliefs About the Problem with the World and Humanity

There is no sin or evil in the world. Some believe in good and evil, while others prefer concepts like order and chaos.

Wiccans emphasize harmony and balance with nature and see “evil” as a result of being out of harmony with the mother goddess and nature.

They do not believe in divine reward and punishment but do believe in karma, in which the good and bad actions of individuals do shape their future.

How each Wiccan words it varies, but they do believe that humans are capable of harming others and creation. They do see the harming of nature as a more serious offense than most religions or belief systems do.

Wiccans do not believe in Satan and take great offense when accused of being Satanists or of performing black magic.

Beliefs About the Solution to the Problem

The solution is to seek harmony with the mother goddess and nature. This harmony brings an appreciation, respect, and love for all life. Having achieved this state, one no longer has the desire to harm others or nature in any way. If everyone did this, then the world could live as one. This harmony is achieved through Hinduistic and Buddhistic meditation, magical rituals, and, for some, sex magick. One must accomplish this through their own works and progression.

Witches have a very strict belief in the Law of Three, which states that whatever one sends out into their world will return to them three-fold, either good or bad. With this in mind, a “true witch” would hesitate in doing magick to harm or manipulate another because it will eventually come back to them in a much greater force.

Wiccans do believe in reincarnation and eventually their ascent into the spiritual realm as an enlightened being. How the afterlife is viewed is not a big part of Wicca and ultimately depends on the individual Wiccan.

Casting a Circle

The ability to do magick is a huge part of Wicca. Magick is the means to align one’s will with nature and make change happen in one’s life or in the world. Magick is also the means to connect with the goddess and nature and become one with them and thus be transformed by them. This can either be done as an individual or in a group of witches known as a coven.

Most of the time, magical rituals and meditation are performed within a casted circle. In order to cast a circle, one must first cleanse the area with the four elements. First, all the elements must be cleansed or blessed. Salt (earth) and water are mixed together and then sprinkled along the perimeter of the circle that will be casted. Then the smoke of burning incense (fire and air) is wafted along the perimeter of the circle. Some witches use a broom to sweep the area of negative psychic energy.

Then the witch points their wand or athame (ceremonial knife) outward and turns in a circle while invoking the mother goddess and the horned god in order to cast a circle. The casting of the circle is created by pulling the energies of creation out of the earth and into the body and then out of the wand. Then the four guardians of the four directions of the compass are invoked in order to protect the circle. Sometimes a pentagram is drawn within the circle and candles are used.

Once the circle is casted, one can meditate within it or do a ritual to achieve whatever they desire to achieve in their life or the world. These rituals usually involve a cookbook, such as ingredients and mixing, and then certain incantations in order to achieve the desired intentions of the individual. They must go through the reverse process in order to undo the circle before they can step out of it.

Some Wiccans perform ritualized sex magick known as the Great Rite. The High Priest and High Priestess, or others, invoke the mother goddess and horned god to possess them before performing sexual intercourse to raise magical energy in order to do magick spells.


Wiccans celebrate many festivals, but the most prominent is Beltane, which is celebrated in May and is the largest gathering in Edinburgh, Scotland. It is a festival that is meant to usher in the new life of spring and ensure the protection of all life in the community. In the past, it was done by lighting special ritual fires and then walking the family and animals around them. These fires would be used to light the fires within the homes of the family.

Now it has become a large ceremonial festival. It starts with people painted red and carrying torches running around representing the forces of chaos that bring winter and death. A woman painted white represents the May Queen who has been sleeping through the winter. And a man painted green represents the green man who has been dead/sleeping through the winter. The ceremony is meant to awaken the two and reunite them so that the new life of spring may come.




Pentacle (pentagram) represents the four elements of earth, air, fire, and water that are brought together to create the fifth element of ether or the god spirit of the person casting the pentacle. Many Wiccans do not like it being called a pentagram because of its association with evil and Satanism in America.


Crescent Moon

Triple goddess moon sign is the sign of the goddess of the moon, the earth, and childbirth. The three moons represent the three phases of the moon, the full and crescent moons. This corresponds to the three aspects of femininity—virgin, mother, and crone.


Witnessing often seems scary, but try to remember you are just sharing who Jesus is to you in your life. It is important to remember that it is not your job to answer all their questions and convert them. It is your job to share who God and Jesus Christ are as you know them now at this point in your life and how they have been involved in your life.

Witnessing to Other People in General

First, pray for wisdom, pray for them, and pray for the leading of the Holy Spirit. Even if you just met them, you can still ask for God’s leading in a brief prayer.

Don’t be afraid of them or make it awkward. Remember that they are humans with many of the same fears and desires that you have. They may look culturally different and sound different as they express their worldview, but at the core of their being, they are a human who wants to be loved, feel safe, and have meaning in their life. They have come to believe that the worldview they have will fulfill those needs. That is really the only thing that makes them different from you.

The most important part is to love them and listen to them. Many non-Christians complain that Christians immediately share the gospel without really getting to know them. Most people do not feel like people really listen to them and get to know who they are. It is important to realize that most witnessing is the result of building a relationship with people and being involved in their life. Understand that you may be in for the long haul, and it may take many conversations and years to lead them to Christ. You may not even see them become a Christian, but God will use you as well as many others to lead them to Christ, which may happen at the influence of another Christian long after they are out of your life.

Even if you know a lot about their religion or have met a lot of people from their religion, do not assume you know what they believe. Not everyone of the same religion necessarily has the same beliefs. Ask them what they believe and why they believe what they do. Pay attention to what they emphasize or what they spend the most time talking about because that usually is the most important thing to them. That will be the most rooted belief that will be the hardest for them to shift their perspective on. Remember not everything they believe is wrong or bad. Compare it to the basic affirmations of the Christian faith, not your personal belief preferences.

Get them to think about how their worldview corresponds to reality. Ask them in a curious and loving way, not in a debating way, about the contradictions in their belief systems. Compare it to things in everyday normal life to help them step outside their belief system and see it from a different perspective. Ask them the questions that you have always had about their religion or the things that do not make sense to you.

Most importantly, share your story with them. They may be able to argue with beliefs, but they cannot argue against your own story. Tell them about your life before Christ, how you came to know Christ, and how He changed your life. And most importantly, tell them how Christ got you through and is getting you through your struggles. Remember, people of other religions do not have a personal relationship with a being that is all powerful and can get them through anything. They are all on their own in dealing with their struggles. Your personal stories are the most powerful tool you have in witnessing to others, for this is where Jesus becomes real in the everyday lives of everyday people.

Finally, do not get distracted by the bizarre or fringe beliefs that other people have. Focus on the majors: who God is, humanity, the problem with humanity and creation, and most importantly the solution to the problem with humanity and creation. The focus should always be on who Jesus is and His work on the cross. Share with them how Jesus provides a better relationship, path, and future.

Witnessing to Wiccans

Realize that out of all the religions pagans usually have the biggest misunderstandings of Christianity of any religion. They also tend to be very anti-Christianity because they see it as hateful, oppressive, and narrow minded. Love, gentleness, and patience are key. And because in your opinion they may have the weirdest or darkest beliefs and practices, you may inadvertently react in shocked or stand-offish ways to them. Try not to do this. Many of them have been hurt by Christianity, and they need your compassion. Try to see things from their perspective and apologize for what “Christianity” has done to them in the past.

Do not ask them questions like, are you a good or bad witch, are you a Satanist, is that like Harry Potter, why do you worship trees, do you do sacrifices, do you hold orgies? And do not assume that all witches are Wiccans. Remember Wicca is the largest but only one of many neopagan groups. Instead, ask, can you tell me a little about paganism, what drew you to paganism, how do you practice paganism, which gods or goddess do you work with?

Ask them about what is involved in casting circles and doing rituals. Share with them how simple it is to talk to God and why it is so simple. Help them see the difference between what is involved between the two practices. For them, connecting to the universe is a feeling. Share with them the personal way that you can talk intimately with the personal being of Jesus Christ.

Wiccans deny the existence of evil. So, ask them why do people do so many bad and sometimes horrific things to each other? They might say it is because we are out of harmony with creation or it is human ignorance that leads to bad deeds. Then ask them, if we are divine, then how could our mere ignorant self be so easily overcome by our divine goodness?

Ask them how they know that their beliefs are true. Often times they will say it comes through spiritual beings, meditation, or their intuition, which can be trusted. Then ask them how they know they can trust these spiritual beings. They will say that because they are enlightened beings who cannot lie. Then ask them how they know that. If there are humans who can pretend to be good and trustworthy in order to con you, could there not also be spiritual beings who do the same? Ask them how they know they can trust their intuition. Have they ever trusted someone who turned out to be untrustworthy, or were convinced that they were so right but found out they were wrong?

Do not let them redefine who Jesus is. Ask them to show you where in the Bible Jesus did that or said that. Take them to the Bible and let them see who Jesus really is. If they say you cannot trust the Bible, then ask them how they know that Jesus said the thing they just quoted Him on.


Farrar, Stewart. Discovering Witchcraft Complete: Journey through the Elements and the Mysteries. 1998. DVD

Greer, John Michael. The Occult Book: A Chronological Journey from Alchemy to Wicca. New York: Sterling, 2017.

Hall, Manly P. The Secret Teachings of All Ages. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam, 2003.

Wikipedia was consulted for historical, biographical information about the major figures that shaped Wicca.